[Flour use basic knowledge]
[Classification of flour]
1. Flour can be divided into performance and specific use
Special flour: such as bread flour, dumpling powder, biscuit powder, etc.;
General purpose flour: such as rich and strong powder; nutritional fortified flour such as calcium-enriched flour, iron-rich flour, etc.;
2. Common flours can be classified according to the type of raw materials:
Wheat flour: Includes all high-gluten, medium-gluten, low-gluten wheat flour, including whole wheat flour. Whole wheat flour contains more crude fiber, which is suitable for whole wheat bread, or other pasta such as steamed whole wheat steamed bread. It is a healthy food that is now advocated.
Corn Flour: Made from corn, usually yellow. Can be used to make corn paste cakes, corn, wolf head and other pasta. In Shaanxi, corn flour is often used to "disturb the group", a local food that is very delicious.
Buckwheat flour: processed from buckwheat, can process noodles, or a kind of Shaanxi pasta called "饸饹".
Buckwheat flour: Buckwheat is a kind of oatmeal. The flour can be used to make cold noodles or Shanxi noodles such as buckwheat rolls.
There are also many kinds of cereals such as sorghum flour, soy flour, mung bean flour, etc. Generally, we rarely use these flours to process things ourselves. How to mix some of these flours when making pasta can enrich your diet.
3. According to the accuracy can be divided into:
Different grades such as refined grade, special first grade, special second grade and standard;
4. According to the strength of the gluten, it can be divided into strong gluten, medium gluten and weak gluten;
High-gluten flour, medium-gluten flour and low-gluten flour are the three commonly used flours in our kitchen. The degree of gluten refers to the proportion of protein contained in the noodles, specifically:
High-gluten flour: protein content is 12.5% - 13.5%, commonly used to make bread or taro noodles, the greater the degree;
Medium-gluten flour: The protein content is 8.5%-12.5%, the most common flour on the market, suitable for all kinds of homemade pasta, noodles, cakes;
Low-gluten flour: The protein content is 8.5% or less, which is most commonly used for cakes, biscuits or pastry snacks.
Flour without whitening agent is indicated on the outer packaging.
[preservation of flour]
Flour should be kept in a cool, dry place, protected from light and humidity. Both moisture and high temperature can deteriorate the flour.
Flour can be stored for one year under proper storage conditions. If it is not properly preserved, it will be deteriorated and insects will appear. Put a pepper bag in the noodle bag to prevent insects.
[Color of flour]
The normal face pink color is milky white or creamy yellow, and the pale or pale white flour is often added with an excessive amount of whitening agent.
[Use of flour]
Add about 1/3 of the cold water to the flour, stir evenly, and then press the dough for 20 minutes, then press into a dough piece, and then press it into a dough piece of about 1 mm thick on a household pressing machine several times, and cut the strip. If you knead your face by hand, the dough can be slightly softer.
When cooking noodles, add 1 tablespoon of oil to the surface of the water. The noodles will not stick, and the noodle soup will be prevented from foaming and overflowing.
When making dumplings, the amount of water added to the noodles is between the taro and the noodles (about 45%). When cooking dumplings, first cook the skin in a pan. After the skin is cooked, cook the filling with the pan. The temperature rises and the filling is easy to cook. This is what people often say, “cooking in an open pan and cooking the pan.”
3. Use of spontaneous powder
Add about half of the warm water (about 35 ° C) to the spontaneous powder, and knead the dough for 30 minutes. The cold water pot is placed in the drawer, heated by simmer, and cooked 15 to 20 minutes after the water is opened.
When using the self-made powder, thoroughly dip the dough (can be divided into two times), otherwise the gluten does not form a network, and the hoe will collapse after the pot is removed.
If you use Fuqiang powder to make steamed bread, you need to add appropriate amount of dry yeast (about 1%), and extend the hair surface time by about 20 minutes.
4. Water addition
The amount of water added is different when making different pastas. The amount of water added to noodles, dumplings, and steamed buns should increase in turn. And make appropriate adjustments according to the different quality of the flour.
The hardness of the dough is adjusted by the ratio of flour to water:
The ratio is 5:2 or less, which is a hard dough, suitable for noodles;
The ratio is 5: (2 ~ 4), softer dough, suitable for making soft steamed buns, buns or dumplings, noodles, etc.;
The ratio is about 1:1, and the noodles are suitable for pancakes or other spread pasta.
1. Water temperature and dough
Making pasta should be related to the noodles, and the noodles have a lot to do with the water temperature.
a. Cold water and noodles, water temperature below 30 ° C, and the gluten, smooth, suitable for cooking, branding, fried food;
b. Warm water and noodles, water temperature is 30 ~ 50 ° C, and the surface is soft and strong, the finished product is not easy to sample, suitable for steamed, fried food;
c. Hot water and noodles, the water temperature is above 70 °C, the dough is soft and soft, the color is dark, but it has a sweet taste, suitable for steaming, frying and frying food;
d. 100 ° C boiling water and noodles, the dough is sticky, the color is dark, the finished product is delicate and sweet, suitable for fried and baked food.
2. How to add water in winter and noodles
Due to the relationship between temperature and water temperature, the movement of water molecules in winter is slow. If the water is not properly applied to the surface, or if the water is not suitable for cold or cold, the surface will not be easy to use. Therefore, in winter and noodles, you must master the trick of adding water:
a. And pancake noodles, add 325-350 ml of warm water at 40 ° C per 500 g of flour;
b. And the surface of the pie or chopped green onion, add 325 ml of warm water of 45 ° C per 500 g of flour;
c. When fermenting the noodles, add 250 to 275 ml of warm water of about 35 ° C per 500 g of flour.
3. How is the dough effect good?
Dumpling noodles 500 grams of flour plus 50 ~ 60% of warm water, put 2% of the salt, fully simmer, wake up for 30 minutes to start operation. Putting salt in the noodles will not only increase the gluten, but also the dumplings in the pan.
搟 Noodle noodles 500 grams of flour plus 35 to 40% of warm water, put 2% of salt and a small amount of edible alkali, wake up for 30 minutes and then operate. This will not only increase the strength, but also the smooth taste and not easy to break.
Steamed steamed noodles 500 grams of flour plus about 50% of warm water, put yeast 1%, can add a small amount of sugar, fully simmer and fully warmed up after the warmth, so that the steamed steamed bun is soft and aromatic.
Flapcake noodles 500g flour plus 50~60% warm water, after 20 minutes of waking up, the effect is excellent.
4. Optimal temperature of the baking surface
The optimum temperature for the baking surface is 27 to 30 °C. At this temperature, the dough can be fermented successfully in 2 to 3 hours. In order to reach this temperature, depending on the climate change, the temperature of the surface water can be adjusted appropriately: cold water in summer; warm water around 40 °C in spring and autumn; in warmer temperatures in winter, the basin can be placed in a warmer place. You can also use 60 ~ 70 ° C hot water and noodles, covered with a damp cloth, placed in a warmer place.
5. Effects of seasonal and temperature changes on pasta production
Every year in the season when the temperature rises rapidly, there is a phenomenon that the dough is sticky and the cooked food is inferior in the process of making the pasta. This is because the temperature has a great influence on the dough and the dough proofing process.
In the dough process, if the dough temperature is too high, the dough will be sticky. For dough that needs to be proofed when making steamed bread, it is appropriate to control the dough temperature to about 30 degrees.
Therefore, the water temperature can be properly adjusted when adding water to the surface. Warm water and noodles can be used in winter, tap water and noodles can be used directly in spring and autumn, and water with lower temperature can be applied in summer (if conditions can be added to ice to adjust temperature) At the end of the surface, the temperature is around 30 degrees. For the dough that does not require proofing, such as noodles, the lower temperature water is applied regardless of the season. The lower the water temperature, the more favorable the noodle making. Use cold water or ice water and noodles to make the dough stronger and whiter.
The dough should also be properly temperature controlled when it is proofed. For the use of special equipment such as proofing box to wake up the dough, the time should be controlled and the temperature should be proofed in the winter. In addition to controlling the temperature in summer, the proofing time should be shortened to avoid excessive fermentation, otherwise the structure and color of the cooked food will be affected. . For self-control equipment without temperature and humidity, proofing must be controlled manually. The temperature can be controlled by an indoor thermometer. In winter, the proofing time should be extended appropriately, and in summer, the time should be shortened to prevent excessive proofing.
6. Salt prevents flour from clumping
When using water and noodles, it is easy to dry the dough. If a little salt is added and then mixed, the dried noodles will not form a dough.
7. Make cold noodles
If the noodles are grouped, you can spray some rice wine on the noodles, and the noodle balls can be spread out.
8. Salt water surface is soft
The good fermentation of the noodles is the key to making all kinds of staple foods such as steamed buns and steamed buns. When you make noodles, put a little salt water in the flour to shorten the acid time, and the surface bubbles are more, and the steamed staple food is softer and more delicious.
9. Clever vinegar as a catalyst:
Steamed steamed buns usually require several hours of dough to be fermented before they can be manipulated. To save time, you can add a little vinegar to the dough and mix it evenly with the water.
According to the ratio of 500 grams of flour plus 50 ml of vinegar and 350 ml of warm water, put the noodles well, then cover the dough with a clean damp cloth, rub for 10 minutes, add 5 grams of baking soda or alkaline noodles. Until there is no sour taste, the steamed steamed bun is still soft.
10. Cleverly add white sugar as a catalyst
In winter, the indoor temperature is low, and it takes a long time to make the hair. If you put some sugar in the noodles during the fermentation, you can shorten the time of the noodles. The evaporated pasta is sweet and soft.
11. Wine can speed up the noodles
If the surface is not yet ready and you are eager to steam the steamed bread, you can press a pit on the noodle, pour a small amount of white wine, and start it with a damp cloth for a few minutes. If it still doesn't work well, put a small glass of white wine in the middle of the steamer after the steamer on the steamed bun, so that the steamed steamed bun is still soft and delicious.
When steaming the steamed buns, if the surface is like hair, you can dig a small pit in the middle of the dough and pour two small glasses of white wine. After stopping for 10 minutes, the noodles will open.
12. Formulation of starter
If you don't have a face beforehand and are eager to eat steamed buns, there is an emergency method: mix 500 grams of flour and 50 ml of vinegar, 350 ml of warm water, mix well, and simmer for about 10 minutes, plus 5 Kes baking soda or alkaline noodles, so strong, until there is no sour taste, so that the steamed taro is still soft and delicious.
13. Honey can replace the starter of the starter
If there is no yeast when baking, use honey instead. Add 250 ml of water per 500 g of flour and 1.5 tablespoons of honey. Pour the honey into the surface and face, use warm water in winter, and use cold water in other seasons. Honey is added directly to the flour), the dough is kneaded, placed in a basin, covered with a damp cloth, placed in a warm place, and allowed to ferment (2 to 3 hours) for 4 to 6 hours. When the dough is swollen to 2 times the original volume, it can be used. If you smell the dough, you can add some alkaline water and mix well before using.
14. How to make it soft? -
Beer taro is soft. Add some beer (half of beer and half of water) to the flour, so that the steamed steamed buns are extra soft. -
The surface is soft with salt water. When you make the noodles, if you put a little salt water to reconcile, you can shorten the fermentation time, and the steamed steamed buns are softer and more delicious. -
Cold days with baking powder, plus some sugar, can shorten the fermentation time, and the effect is good. *** This is an effective method. -
15. How to steam the pasta to be both soft and gluten? -
a. Cold water and noodles are used in summer, warm water and noodles in winter, and winter and noodles and noodles should be 1 to 2 hours earlier than summer. Be careful when adding water. -
b. The dough should be simmered several times to promote the full absorption of water by the starch and protein in the flour. The gluten is really good. It is advisable to keep a certain temperature at a temperature of 30 ° C. -
c. When the surface has risen, it is necessary to master the degree of fermentation. If you see the dough in the honeycomb, there are many small eyes, indicating that it has been fermented. The larger the eye of the honeycomb body, the older the yeast is, and even the head is over. -
d. Before the steamed bread is steamed, it must pass through the noodles. In the winter, the face is about 15 to 20 minutes, and in summer it is shorter. When the steamed bread is basketed, the water in the pot must be wide open, and the atmosphere must be seen in 10 minutes. -
e. The cage should not leak when it meets the mouth of the pot. If there is a leak, it must be blocked with a damp cloth. When steaming in an aluminum pan, the lid should be tightly closed.
f. When steaming the steamed bread, the pot must be heated with cold water and gradually warmed up to uniformly heat the steamed bread. Don't try to steam the steamed bun with hot water or boiling water at the beginning, because the steamed steamed bun is easy to sandwich. -
16. How to steam out the hoe of the pine? -
The key to making pasta is fermentation. Yeast can chemically change the starch of the dough to produce sugar, alcohol, acid, etc., and emit carbon dioxide gas.
However, if the heating method is not appropriate, for example, it is directly placed on the pot, because it is not evenly heated, it can only become a soft and soft "scone";
In order to get a gimmick, you must ask for hot steam to help. When people put the oysters into the steamer, the high-temperature steam quickly encloses the hoe and heats the hoe uniformly from all sides. The carbon dioxide gas inside the steamed bread is heated and expanded, but it is not easy to emerge. It can only be drilled and drilled inside, so it will swell a lot of small vacuoles, making the steamed bun loose and sturdy.
If you put some sugar in the noodles, the fermentation is sufficient, the steam temperature is high, and the steam supply is fierce, you can evaporate the “flowering” steamed buns on the surface. This kind of steamed bread is flexible and delicious.
17. How to make a face loose and big? -
There are many ways to make steamed buns. It is also very important to choose flour. You can't choose flour with too much gluten. For example, the flour used to make bread can't be used as a steamed bread.
Southern taro (with sweetness) uses low-gluten flour, which is usually indicated on the noodle bag when buying flour. This taro is:
Formula: flour 100%, sugar: 10-20%, water about 42%, yeast: 0.8-1%, baking powder 1%, (milk powder 5% or oil 5%) -
Note: The brackets can be added or not, and the taste is much better.
a. Flour and baking powder are evenly mixed,
b. Adding two or three sugar-soluble yeasts with a small amount of water, the term is called activated yeast, but the sugar must not be more, otherwise the yeast will die due to osmosis.
c. Other water dissolves sugar. The water temperature can't be too low, about 30 degrees.
d. Mix 1 and 2, add 3 kneading dough, preferably with a blender. If you use your hands, it is more tired. Try to make the flour gluten fully expand.
e. The dough is allowed to stand for 10 minutes and molded.
f. Wake up for about 60 minutes, conditionally wake up in the proofing box, that is, the humidity is 75%, the temperature is around 37. It is best not to let the surface dry.
g. Steam after boiling for 15 minutes.
18. What is the key to fermentation? -
Add the noodles to the right amount, add more homemade noodles, add 500 grams of flour per 500 grams of flour, such as fresh yeast, add 5 to 10 grams per 500 grams of flour;
If fresh yeast is used, it can be dissolved in warm water, then added to the flour in proportion and evenly, and placed in a warm place, until it is fermented. For example, with a noodle fertilizer, it can be carried out in two steps. First, use a small bowl of flour and noodles. Initiate 3 to 4 hours, then pour the other flour into it, and then send it for 2 to 3 hours. If time is limited, you can combine the two steps into one.
More surface fertilizer, high ambient temperature, fast fermentation, and vice versa, slow fermentation;
Add a little salt to the noodles, which can promote the yeast to multiply faster, produce more carbon dioxide, steamed taro soft and sweet, sweet and delicious, can also add some beer, the effect is better. -
19. How to identify the extent of fermentation?
When the dough is swollen to a certain extent, gently press the top of the dough with your fingers, the gluten is strong, the elasticity is good, and after the fingers are removed, the pressed portion can be quickly restored to the original state, indicating that the surface is not good. If the dough is small and small after cutting the dough, the sweet and sour taste is not obvious, indicating that the dough is insufficiently fermented, and it needs to be continued.
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